“Everyday attacks” sometimes the victims are UN-soldiers

https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/mission/minusma

United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali

(French: Mission multidimensionnelle intégrée des Nations unies pour la stabilisation au Mali, MINUSMA)[2] is a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali.

MINUSMA was established on 25 April 2013 by United Nations Security Council Resolution 2100 to stabilise the country after the Tuareg rebellion of 2012.[3]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Multidimensional_Integrated_Stabilization_Mission_in_Mali

…but not only German troops but basically all of NATO help to ensure the Uranium supplies for French and other European Nuclear Power reactors keeps flowing.

Especially France:

  • France discovered one of the world’s largest uranium deposits in the 1960s
  • Today Niger has 2 uranium mines = 7.5% of the world’s output
  • 4th largest producer of uranium
  • 2 mining towns: Arlit and Arkokan, are 900km north-east of the capital Niamey
  • Mines are operated by Areva – a French company that owns 70%
  • Local Tuareg groups feel they have not benefitted from the industry
  • Uranium from Niger provides 50% of France’s energy supply

src: geo41.com

Mali is directly bordering with: Niger

Niger’s 421,000t of known recoverable uranium resources as of 2011 make it the world’s fifth richest uranium country, while it was also the world’s 4th biggest uranium country with 4,667t of production in 2012.

Uranium mining operations in Niger are mostly concentrated around the twin mining towns of Arlit and Akokan, while most of the country’s uranium output is from the Société des Mines de l’Air (SOMAIR) and Compagnie Miniere d’Akouta (COMINAK) joint venture mining operations led by Areva.

The Societe des Mines d’Azelik (SOMINA), majorly owned by China Nuclear International Uranium Corporation (SinoU), started production from the Azelik/Teguidda uranium deposit located 160km south-west of Arlit at the end of 2010.

SOMAIR’s Arlit mine produced 3,065t of uranium in 2012 becoming the world’s fourth biggest uranium producing mine.

Africa’s biggest known uranium deposit Imouraren, located 80km south of Arlit which has been developed by a majority-owned Areva subsidiary since 2009, will be a major uranium mining operation in Niger when it commences production in 2015. (src: mining-technology.com)

Uranium reserves are reserves of recoverable uranium, regardless of isotope, based on a set market price. The list given here is based on Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand, a joint report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency.[1]

Country Reserves as of 2015 Historical Production to 2014
 Algeria 19,500 0
 Argentina 19,600 2,582
 Australia 1,780,800 194,646
 Belgium 0 686
 Botswana 73,500 0
 Brazil 276,800 4,172
 Bulgaria 0 16,364
 Canada 703,600 483,957
 Central African Republic 32,000 0
 Chad 2,400 0
 Chile 1,500 0
 China 272,500 39,849[2]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,700 25,600[2]
 Czech Republic 119,300 111,765[2]
 Egypt 1,900 0
 Finland 1,200 30
 France 0 76,006
 Gabon 5,800 25,403
 Germany 7,000 219,686
 Greece 7,000 0
 Greenland 228,000 0
 Hungary 13,500 21,067
 India 138,700 11,398[2]
 Indonesia 7,200 0
 Iran 3,900 0
 Italy 6,100 0
 Japan 6,600 84
 Jordan 47,700 0
 Kazakhstan 941,600 244,707
 Madagascar 0 785
 Malawi 14,300 4,217
 Mali 13,000 0
 Mauritania 23,800 0
 Mexico 3,400 49
 Mongolia 141,500 535
 Namibia 463,000 120,418
 Niger 411,300 132,017
 Pakistan 0 1,439[2]
 Peru 33,400 0
 Poland 0 650
 Portugal 7,000 3,720
 Romania 6,600 18,899[2]
 Russia 395,200 158,844
 Slovakia 15,500 211
 Slovenia 9,200 382
 Somalia 7,600 0
 South Africa 449,300 159,510
 Soviet Union 1,800,000 (approximation) 102,886 (approximation)
 Spain 33,900 8,028
 Sweden 9,600 200
 Tanzania 58,100 0
 Turkey 6,600 0
 Ukraine 220,700 129,804
 United States 138,200 373,075
 Uzbekistan 130,100 127,591[2]
 Vietnam 3,900 0
 Zambia 24,600 86
 Zimbabwe 1,400 0
Total 7,641,600 2,818,415

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_uranium_reserves

Educational Videos about this topic: “Uranium? Is it a country?”

Even worse: France could get into Conflict with China over Uranium reserves of Africa:

: Mali’s Rebellion Stirs Fear Of Wider Saharan Conflict

2013: Mali-Niger-Uranium: A Chinese Puzzle

As French fighter-jets pound rebel targets in the northern reaches of Mali, a detachment of French special forces have been quietly dispatched to neighboring Niger.

Now, Niger is supposedly one of the ten poorest countries on the planet, with most people living on less than $1.00 per day. On the other hand, it also has huge deposits of uranium, and the largest uranium miner is Areva, a sprawling French energy conglomerate, in which the French government has a major interest. Areva’s Arlit mine is in a desolate northern region of Niger and the mission of the Special Forces is to protect it.

After all, France depends on nuclear reactors to provide 80 percent of the country’s electrical power.

Thus, deployment of the special forces is not at all surprising, particularly in light of the spectacular attack by jihadists on the huge Amenas plant in eastern Algeria. Indeed, a group linked to Al Qaeda kidnapped seven Areva employees in 2010, and still holds four of them hostage.

Which raises the cynical question: to what degree was France’s dramatic intervention in Mali driven by France’s own economic interests?

Which also brings us to the Chinese, and the quandary they face.

As I’ve previously blogged, the Chinese have huge interests of their own in the region — including their $300 million SOMINA uranium mine at the desert outpost of Azalik in northern Niger.

Generally, pursuing business, the Chinese attempt to work with whatever government is in power. They don’t attempt to push any particular political line, or raise questions about potentially embarrassing issues like human rights.

But the Chinese might have as good a reason as the French to be nervous about their operations in Niger. In recent years, the Chinese operators of the SOMINA mine have been the target of protests from Tuareg tribesmen in the region, who were hired to work there.

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger’s growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands.

 

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger’s growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted in the desert on a training excercise close to a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic)
ZAGADO, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of MNJ breakaway faction leader and Tuareg Rissa ag Boula, a former Niger Army commander and Minister of Tourism photographed in Zagado, Nothern Niger, 7 April 2009. Boula is now on the run himself from the French as well as Niger forces. He has gone back to his own people and joined the Tuareg rebellion although it is under some scepticism from other MNJ leaders. He has a reputation as a fierce fighter and is seen with his sniper rifle. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

The Tuaregs claimed to have been exploited by their Chinese bosses, poorly paid, poorly housed, particularly when compared to Chinese workers there.

Perhaps that situation was cleaned up, but one would think that, in light of current events, the Chinese would be taking precautions of their own in Niger.

But who are they going to get to protect them? Certainly not their own special forces. One can just imagine the U.S. or French reaction. Do they train and arm their own Nigerian security guards?

What about the project currently in the works of several African countries contributing to a joint military force, perhaps under UN auspices, to take over from France in Mali?

You’d think the Chinese would be cheering the idea.

But, they don’t seem to be — at least not yet. When the African governments asked for close to a billion dollars to fund that joint African deployment, the major donor countries, including the U.S. and Japan, pledged less than half that amount.

And China? A grand total of $1 million!

You figure it out.

Ironically, the Nigerian government, which has been claiming that their country has not profited from its huge mineral wealth, has been pushing France to renegotiate its uranium deal with Niger.

Otherwise, their president Mohamadou Issoufou recently threatened, they might seek other partners to exploit that uranium.

Like China?, he was asked. “There is no reason to exclude other countries that wish to cooperate with us,” he replied.

Wiki says…

EUTM Mali (European Union Training Mission in Mali) is a European Union multinational military training mission headquartered in Bamako, Mali.

21 EU members (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom) and 4 non-EU countries (not members of the EU: Georgia, Montenegro, Serbia and Albania) are engaged in this mission and have sent soldiers to the Republic of Mali.

Commanded by Brigadier general Enrique Millán Martínez  Spain
Date 17th January 2013-present
Executed by

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union_Training_Mission_in_Mali

http://www.vieuxmali.com/pitch-book/

Possible solution?

RENEWABLES!

RENEWABLES!

RENEWABLES!

RENEWABLES!

GOD DAMN IT! ANYTHING ELSE IS NOT SUSTAINABLE, UNSUSTAINABLE MEANS IT WILL END! DO YOU WANT TO END?

 

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