IJCCR (International Journal of Community Currency Research) Contents, 1998 to 2015

Vol. Year Articles Authors Pages
    Volume 19 (Summer)    
19 2015 Introduction: Money and Development Georgina Gómez 1-5
19 2015 Territorial development and Community currencies: symbolic meanings in Brazilian Community development banks Marie Fare, Carlos de Freitas and Camille Meyer 6-17
19 2015 Complementary Currencies for Sustainable Development in Kenya: The Case of the Bangla-Pesa William O. Ruddick, Morgan A. Richards, and Jem Bendell 18-30
19 2015 Virtual social currencies for unemployed people: social networks and job market access Maëlle Della Peruta and Dominique Torre 31-41
19 2015 Price Setting Mechanisms in Complementary Currencies in Argentina’s Redes de Trueque Georgina M. Gómez 42-52
19 2015 What kinds of volunteer become more motivated by community currency? Influence of perceptions of reward on motivation Ken-ichi Kurita, Masayuki Yoshida and Yoshihisa Miyazaki 53-61
19 2015 Building trust: exploring the role of community exchange and reputation Robin Krabbe 62-71
19 2015 Community Currency in Korea: How do we envision community currency? Joonmo Kang and Baeg Eui Hong 72-80
19 2015 Beyond growth: problematic relationships between the financial crisis, care and public economies, and alternative currencies Maurizio Ruzzene 81-93
19 2015 French complementary currency systems: exploring contributions to promote social currency in Argentina Ricardo Orzi 94-105
19 2015 The Financing of Complementary Currencies: Problems and Perspectives Rolf. F. H. Schroeder 106-113
19 2015 On Velocity in Several Complementary Currencies Josep Lluis de la Rosa and James Stodder 114-127
19 2015 Prices in Parallel Currency: the case of the Exchange Network of Chania, Crete Irene Sotiropoulou 128-136
19 2015 Cooperation and Intertrade between Community Currencies: From fundamentals to rule-making and clearing systems, including a case study of the Zurich Area, Switzerland Jens Martignoni 137-151
19 2015 Validating and improving the Impact of Complementary Currency Systems through impact assessment frameworks Christophe Place and Leander Bindewald 152-164
19 2015 It’s the motivation, stupid! The influence of motivation of secondary currency initiators on the currencies’ success Lukas Fesenfeld, Jan Stuckatz, Iona Summerson, Thomas Kiesgen, Daniela Ruß, Maja Klimaschewski 165-172
19   Volume 19 (Winter)    
19 2015 The Community Currency Scene in Spain Hughes, Neil 1-11
19 2015 How Green is Our Money? Mapping the Relationship between Monetary Systems and the Environment Brooks, Skylar 12-18
19 2015 2015 Book reviews
Vol. Year Articles Authors Pages
Volume 18
18 2014 A Counter-Hegemonic Discourse of Economic Difference: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Timebanking in the United States Rice, Julie Steinkopf 1-10
18 2014 First Micro-Simulation Model of a LEDDA Community Currency-Dollar Economy Boik, John 11-29
18 2014 2014 Book reviews
Volume 17
17 2013 Improving Complementary Currency Interchange By A Regional Hub-Solution Huber, L. and Martignoni, J. 1-7
17 2013 Bitcoin: The Political ‘Virtual’ Of An Intangible Material Currency Jansen, M. 8-18
17 2013 Taking Moneyless Exchange to Scale: Measuring and Maintaining the Health of a Credit Clearing System Greco, T. 19-25
17 2013 Is A Global Virtual Currency With 
Universal Acceptance Feasible? Jegatheesan, S., Ahmed, S., Chamney, A. and El-Kadri, N. 26-44
17 2013 Complementary currency and its impact on the economy Groppa, Octavio 45-57
17 2013 2013 Book reviews
Volume 16
16 2012 A New Approach to a Typology of Complementary Currencies Martignoni, J. 1-17
16 2012 Key Indicators of Time Bank Participation: Using Transaction Data for Evaluation Collom, E. 18-29
16 2012 Japan’s Fureai Kippu Time-banking in 
Elderly Care: Origins, Development, 
Challenges and Impact Hayashi, M. 30-44
16 2012 Are Alternative Currencies A Substitute Or A Complement To Fiat Money? Evidence From Cross-Country Data Pfajfar, D., Sgro, G. and Wagner, W. 45-56
16 2012 2012 Book reviews
16D 2012 Editorial 2012 (Volume 16 Special Issue): Thirty Years of Community and Complementary Currencies  J. Blanc 1-4
16D 2012 Democratizing Money: Historical Role of the U.S. Federal Government in Currency Creation Wainwright, S. 5-13
16D 2012 Selling Scrip to America: Ideology, Self-help and the experiments of the Great Depression Elvins, S. 14-21
16D 2012 Tax Anticipation Scrip as a Form of Local Currency in the USA during the 1930s Gatch, L. 22-35
16D 2012 Community Currencies as Integrative Communication Media for Evolutionist Institutional Design Nishibe, M. 36-48
16D 2012 A comparison in transaction efficiency between dispersive and concentrated money creation Kichiji, N. and Nishibe, M. 49-57
16D 2012 Does Demurrage matter for Complementary Currencies? Godschalk, H. 58-69
16D 2012 Economic Activity Without Official Currency in Greece: The * Hypothesis Sotiropoulou, I. 70-79
16D 2012 Sustainability of the Argentine Complementary Currency Systems Gómez, G. 80-90
16D 2012 Moral Money: A Case Study at the Chiemgauer Regional money Thiel, C. 91-96
16D 2012 Solidarity economy between a focus on the local and a global view Volkmann, K. 97-105
16D 2012 Stroud Pound: A Local Currency to Map, Measure and Strengthen the Local Economy Scott Cato, M. and Suárez, M. 106-115
16D 2012 Local Exchange Trading Systems in Central European post-Communist Countries Jelínek, P., Szalay, Zs. and Konečný, A. 116-123
16D 2012 An Empirical Study of the Social Effects of Community Currencies Nakazato, H. and Hiramoto, T. 124-135
16D 2012 CC Coupon Circulation and Shopkeepers’ Behaviour: A Case Study of the City of Musashino, Tokyo, Japan Kurita, K., Miyazaki, Y. and Nishibe, M. 136-145
16D 2012 A two-marketplace and two-currency system: A view on business-to-business barter exchange Young, M. 146-155
16D 2012 Emerging trend of complementary currencies systems as policy instruments for environmental purposes: changes ahead? Joachain, H. and Klopfert, F. 156-168
16D 2012 Trophic currencies: ecosystem modeling and resilient economies Brakken, M., Austin, P., Rearick, S. and Bindewald, L. 169-175
Volume 15
15A 2011 Eco-Pesa: An Evaluation of a Complementary Currency Programme in Kenya’s Informal Settlements Ruddick, W.O. 1-12
15A 2011 Time is of the Essence: The Challenges and Achievements of a Swedish Time Banking Initiative Molnar, S. 13-22
15A 2011 A Theoretical Framework for Shared Monetary Governance Jones, S.D. 23-30
15A 2011 Community Currency Research: An analysis of the literature Schroeder, R.F.H., Miyazaki, Y., Fare, M. 31-41
15A 2011 Status: The Burlington Currency Project: A History Kirschner, A. 42-55
15A 2011 Money and Participatory Governance: A review of the literature Jones, S.D. 56-68
15A 2011 Downtown Dollars: Community currency or discount coupon? Kaplan, N. 69-77
15A 2011 Communal Currencies In Venezuela Dittmer, K. 78-83
15A 2011 Calgary Dollars: Economic and Social Capital Benefits Wheatley, G., Younie, C., Alaijlan, H. and McFarlane, E. 84-89
15A 2011 2011 Book Reviews
15D Editorial 2011 (Volume 15 Special Issue): The State of the Art Longhurst, N. and Seyfang, G. 1
15D 2011 Preface 2011 (Volume 15 Special Issue): Yet Another Moment of Truth Boyle, D. 1-3
15D 2011 Classifying ‘CCs’: Community, Complementary and Local Currencies Blanc, J. 4-10
15D 2011 On The Money: Getting the message out Rogers, J. 11-16
15D 2011 Complementary Currencies in Germany: The Regiogeld System Thiel, C. 17-21
15D 2011 What Have Complementary Currencies in Japan Really Achieved? Hirota, Y. 22-26
15D 2011 Alternative Exchange Systems in Contemporary Greece Sotiropoulou, I. 27-31
15D 2011 Complementary Currencies for Sustainable Local Economies in Central America Brenes, E. 32-38
15D 2011 Community Currency Progress in Latin America (Banco Palmas) Place, C. 39-46
15D 2011 L’Accorderie and Le Jardin Universel (JEU) in Quebec Lizotte, M. and Duhaime, G. 47-51
15D 2011 Kékfrank to Boost the Resilience of Locality Szalay, Z.E. 52-56
15D 2011 The SOL: A Complementary Currency for the Social Economy and Sustainable Development Fare, M. 57-60
15D 2011 Building Local Resilience: The emergence of the UK Transition Currencies Ryan-Collins, J. 61-67
15D 2011 A Report from Vermont (USA): The VBSR Marketplace Kirschner, A. 68-72
15D 2011 Time-Banking in Social Housing Naughton – Doe, R. 73-76
15D 2011 The Colours of Money: Artmoney as Community Currency Banks, M. 77-81
15D 2011 Complementary Currency Open Source Software in 2010 Slater, M. 82-87
Volume 14
14A 2010 Editorial 2010 (volume 14) Longhurst, N. 0
14A 2010 Learning To Exchange Time: Benefits and Obstacles To Time Banking Ozanne, L. 1-16
14A 2010 The Case for Monetary Diversity Mouatt, S. 17-28
14A 2010 Stamp Scrip in the Great Depression: Lessons for Community Currency for Today? Warner, J. 29-45
14B 2010 Research Briefing: Grassroots Innovations and Complementary Currencies Seyfang, G. and Longhurst, N. 1-2
Volume 13
13 2009 13 (2009), editorial Williams, C.C. 1-2
13 2009 Time for Each Other: Working Towards a Complementary Currency Model to Serve the Anti-Poverty Policies of the Municipality of Landgraaf, the Netherlands van Kuik, M. 3-18
13 2009 Change Takes Time: Exploring Structural and Developmental Issues of Time Banking Gregory, L. 19-32
13 2009 Stiansen Endre and Guyer Jane I. (1999) Credit, Currencies and Culture: African Financial Institutions in Historical Perspective Ngoumou, T. 33-35
13 2009 The Impact of Community Currency Systems on Gender Relations in Rural Northeast Thailand: A Hybrid Social Audit-Gender Analysis Approach Walker, D. 36-60
13 2009 Chiemgauer Regiomoney: Theory and Practice of a Local Currency Gelleri, C. 61-75
13 2009 Social Economy and Central Banks: Legal and Regulatory Issues on Social Currencies (Social Money) as a Public Policy Instrument Consistent with Monetary Policy Freire, M.V. 76-94
13 2009 Josh Ryan-Collins, Lucie Stephens and Anna Coote (2008) The New Wealth Of Time: How Time Banking Helps People Build Public Services Devitt, K. 95-97
13 2009 David Akin and Joel Robbins (eds) (1999) Money and Modernity: State and Local Currencies in Melanesia de Meulenaere, S. 95-98
13 2009 Gill Seyfang (2009) The New Economics of Sustainable Consumption: Seeds of Change Graugaard, J. 99-101
Volume 12
12 2008 Editorial 2008 (volume 12) Seyfang, G. 1
12 2008 2007 Yearly Report of the Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems de Meulenaere, S. 2-19
12 2008 Peter North (2006) Alternative Currency Movements as a Challenge to Globalisation? A Case Study of Manchester’s Local Currency Networks. Boulianne, M. 20-23
12 2008 Community Currency: An Approach To Economic Sustainability In Our Local Bioregion Soder, N. T. 24-52
12 2008 An Economic Analysis Of Contemporary Local Currencies In The United States Krohn, G.A. and Snyder, A.M. 53-68
12 2008 Helmut Creutz (2008) Le Syndrome De La Monnaie. Vers Une Economie De Marche Sans Crise. Blanc, J. 69-73
Volume 11
11 2007 Editorial 2007 (volume 11) Williams, C.C. 0
11 2007 Local Currency Loans and Grants: Comparative Case Studies of Ithaca HOURS and Calgary Dollars Mascornick, J. 1-22
11 2007 2006 Yearly Report of the Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems de Meulenaere, S. 23-35
11 2007 The Motivations, Engagement, Satisfaction, Outcomes, and Demographics of Time Bank Participants: Survey Findings from a U.S. System Collum, E. 36-83
11 2007 Towards A Knowledge Economy Carrillo, C.I., de la Rosa, J.L. and Canals, A. 84-97
11 2007 Exploring Gender Divisions In A Community Currency System: The Case Of The Barter Network In Argentina Pereyra, F. 98-111
Volume 10
10 2006 Editorial 2006 (volume 10) Williams, C.C. 0
10 2006 Complementary Currency Innovation: Self-guarantee in peer-to-peer currencies Ardon, M. and Lietaer, B. 1-7
10 2006 2005 Yearly Report of the Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems de Meulenaere, S. 8-17
10 2006 A Proposal for a Brazilian Education Complementary Currency Lietaer, B. 18-23
10 2006 Community Exchange and Trading Systems in Germany Schroeder, R.F.H. 24-42
10 2006 Argentina in the Red: What can the UK’s Regional Economies Learn from the Argentinian Banking Crisis? Cato, M.S. 43-55
10 2006 Establishing Time Based Community Currencies: Means of Measure, Exchange and Storage Serra, S. H. 56-67
Volume 9
9 2005 Has the Time for Electronic Currency Come? Imagining an E-Currency Future for Money Sharma, A.
9 2005 Helping Everyone Have PLENTY: Addressing Distribution and Circulation in an HOURS-based Local Currency System Lepofsky, J. and Bates, L.K.
9 2005 Editorial 2005 (volume 9) Williams, C.C. 0
Volume 8
8 2004 Editorial 2004 (volume 8) Williams, C.C. 0
8 2004 The Social and Cultural Capital of Community Currency, An Ithaca HOURS Case Study Survey Jacob, J., Brinkerhoff, M., Jovic, E. and Wheatley, G.
8 2004 HOUR Town – Paul Glover and the Genesis and Evolution of Ithaca HOURS Jacob, J., Brinkerhoff, M., Jovic, E. and Wheatley, G.
8 2004 Kaláka and Kör: Green money and mutual aid in Hungary North, P.
8 2004 Complementary Currencies in Japan Today: History, Originality and Relevance Lietaer, B.
Volume 7
7 2003 Editorial 2003 (volume 7) Williams, C.C. 0
7 2003 A Currency for Change? one activist’s personal view of LETS Taylor, G.
Volume 6
6 2002 Editorial 2002 (volume 6) Williams, C.C. 0
6 2002 Tackling social exclusion with community currencies: learning from LETS to Time Banks Seyfang G.
6 2002 Talente Tauschring Hannover (TTH): Experiences of a German LETS and the relevance of theoretical reflections Schroeder, R.F.
6 2002 Development at the Conjuncture of Feminism and Associationalism Powell, J.


Volume 5
5 2001 Editorial 2001 (volume 5) Williams, C.C. 0
5 2001 Mutual Credit Systems and the Commons Problem: Why Community Currency Systems such as LETS Need Not Collapse Under Opportunistic Behaviour Schraven, J.
5 2001 The Role of the Third Sector in Paving a ‘Third Way’: Some Lessons From Local Exchange and Trading Schemes (LETS) in the United Kingdom Williams, C.C., Aldridge, T., Lee, R., Leyshon, A., Thrift, N. and Tooke, J.
5 2001 On LETS and Time Dollars Cahn, E.
5 2001 Commodity Currencies for Fair and Stable International Exchange Rates Plinge, J.W.
Volume 4
4 2000 Editorial 2000 (volume 4) Willams, C.C.
4 2000 LETS and Benefit Claiming in the UK: Results of a Pilot Project Fitzpatrick, T.
4 2000 Towards an Economy in the Hands of the People: The Tianguis Tlaloc Local Currency System in Mexico Lopezllera-Mendez, L. and de Meulenaere, S.
4 2000 Reinventing the Market: Alternative Currencies and Community Development in Argentina de Meulenaere, S.
4 2000 Community-based LETSystems in Australia: Localised Barter in a Sophisticated Western Economy Liesch, P.W. and Birch, D.
4 2000 Why Do People Join Local Exchange Trading Systems? Caldwell, C.
Volume 3
3 1999 Editorial 1999 (volume 3) Irwin, G. 0
3 1999 Nouvelles formes de sociabilités ou les limites d’une utopie politique Laacher, S.
3 1999 Cercles d’échanges, cercles vertueux de la solidarité Le cas de l’Allemagne Pierret, D.
Volume 2
2 1998 Editorial 1998 (volume 2) Jackson, M. 0
2 1998 Evaluating LETS as a Means of Tackling Social Exclusion and Cohesion Willams, C.C., Aldridge, T., Lee, R., Leyshon, A., Thrift, N. and Tooke, J.
2 1998 Green Domination In Norwegian LETSystems: Catalyst For Growth Or Constraint On Development? Gran, E.
2 1998 Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) in Australia: a new tool for community development? Ingleby, J.
2 1998 Corporate Barter and Economic Stabilisation Stodder, J. 1-11
Volume 1
1 1997 Editorial 1997 (volume 1) Williams, C.C. 0
1 1997 Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) in Australia: a new tool for community development? Williams, C.C. 1-11
1 1997 The problem of over-accumulation: examining and theorising the structural form of LETS Jackson, M. 1-9
1 1997 Examining Local Currency Systems: a social audit approach Seyfang, G. 1-29

source:  published on Sep 27, 2014.

This is a rough transcript of the above video that you should store on your offline-harddisk just in case youtube decides to delete it.

Universities and wast majority of the population and academics all have a blind spot – we have a blind spot on the domain of money.

this blind spots consists of 3 levels/layers:

  • 1st Level/Layer) is very old 5000 years old: Distinction between value systems in a patriarchal and a Matrifocal society society.
    • All patriarchal societies in history have always imposed a single currency with positives interest rates – top down – it is actually an extraction device and we still have that.
    • All societies that honor feminine values (Matrifocal societies like Egypt – or central middle ages) use several currencies – an ecosystem of currencies – some of these currencies which are identical to the patriarchal one’s are used for long-distance-trade.
      • more sophisticated: the have “demurage” – a negative interest rate – which is a penalty in keeping and storing money – so it becomes a pure medium of exchange – not at all a store of value – you would be crazy to store a value when there is a penalty in keeping.
  • 2nd Level/Layer) about 100 years old:
    • All fields of human sciences including economics but also sociology, anthropology have all completely polarized between capitalism and communism – as two poles of interpretation of how to organize a modern or industrial society.
    • That polarization has created a tension on everything that is different between them – there are millions of books about what is different between capitalism and communism – there are zero books that study
    • what they (capitalism and communism) have in common – blind spot – that is:
      • the use of a singular currency, on the national level, created by bank-debt, with interest.
      • i would add: they both failed on preventing corruption
    • differences are:
      • in communism / soviet system: the banks were owned by the government
      • in capitalism – the governments only own the banks when the banks fall apart
      • … the rest is the same.
  • 3rd Level/Layer): The Academic BlindSpot
    • try to publish an article in the quarterly Journal of American Economics on questioning the money-system – no way you get it published in this “prestigious” journal – it is locked.
    • i have no problems with economics using mathematics – but what you have is the evidence and the proof – that the mathematics they use is wrong – the mathematical model is wrong since the 19th century – we haven’t gotten out of it – we are still talking about prices being formed by supply and demand and automatically getting to an equilibrium – in fact – the same product in the same city has very different prices depending on the supermarket and it should not be there – according to that model – so reality is proofing us – that this is a very abstract way of looking at reality that does not fit the way economics really is.


When you do an open system – then the model that we are proposing which is a complex flow network (like in any natural ecosystem) in which money circulates is the valid one – and we have the proof from thousands of examples of natural ecosystems that this is not stable – unless you put diversity and inter-connectivity within a particular range.

We need to rethink – which mathematics are used and which theoretical framework is being used – which just requires rethinking the entire economic field – which is of course very exciting – for those who want to create something.

There is a huge amount of work to be done – everything needs to be redone.

Economics has never incorporated entropy.

ideological blockage

it has been attempted by Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen (Mathematician, Statistician and Economist) in the 1960s/1970s – but has never been integrated back into economics – has never been integrated into mainstream-economics.

I found it interesting that Samuelson who wrote the preface of Georgescu‘s book basically said: all economists should read this book.

Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen is the scholar of the scholars – and the economist of the economists – really hardcore – and no economist should be ignorant of the implications of entropy in the field – because it really questions everything.

Samuelson himself has never changed his book (to reflect that) – it ran through another 20 editions without changing it (in that direction in any way) – so there is an ideological blockage.


biggest problem

i see in the economic framework – besides the definition of an open system – as opposed to a closed system – which is the way it is usually taught – is what do we do what they call “extranalaties”.

In the economic field you have a theoretical framework that is perfectly rational and perfectly mathematical coherent – but it is not related to anything outside of it’s framework.

This is a structural problem – and if you deal with structural problems you need to have structural solutions – if you don’t you just gonna repeat the cycle.

What politicians, economists and (!) society (your father/mother) say:

“If you would work harder – we would not have economic problems” (governments would not be in debt and so on):



What i am proposing as a model is: You have the economy as a center – and you have around it the human-social system were economics is a subset of – there are lots of things we do that are not economic.

And the social-system itself is a subset of the biosphere – so the three fall into each other – and therefore there are no analogies in that approach – that is the model – which is called

ecologic economics

i haven’t invented it – there is a full series of people that have been working with it.

ecological_economics-book-coverbut that is not what is taught.

What is taught is an abstract ideology that has nothing to do with reality.

(Rough Transcript of (i could not hear every word and google’s subtitle algorithm did not help either)

Screenshot from the above Video: nice gesture Mr Lietaer 😀


Just for the Love of it: Who the F**** is “Courtney Love was invented?” ah never mind i just misheard something in the above video.


Video: Description is: “Bernard Lietaer – Outspoken comments on capitalism. See Lietaer‘s interview ”What about Money?” at… . The book he mentions:… by nicholas_georgescu-roegenNicolas Georgescu-Roegen. (Mathematician, Statistician and Economist)the-entropy-law-and-the-economic-process-hardcover-february-5-1971-by-nicolas-georgescu-roegen“Every few generations a great seminal book comes along that challenges economic analysis and through its findings alters men’s thinking and the course of societal change.

This is such a book, yet it is more.

It is a “poetic” philosophy, mathematics, and science of economics.

It is the quintessence of the thought that has been focused on the economic reality.

Henceforce all economists must take these conclusions into account lest their analyses and scholarship be found wanting.

“The entropy of the physical universe increases constantly because there is a continuous and irrevocable qualitative degradation of order into chaos.

The entropic nature of the economic process, which degrades natural resources and pollutes the environment, constitutes the present danger. The earth is entropically winding down naturally, and economic advance is accelerating the process. Man must learn to ration the meager resources he has so profligately squandered if he is to survive in the long run when the entropic degradation of the sun will be the crucial factor, “for suprising as it may seem, the entire stock of natural resources is not worth more than a few days of sunlight!” Georgescu-Rogen has written our generation’s classic in the field of economics.”Library Journal

–This text refers to the Paperback edition.

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, born Nicolae Georgescu (4 February 1906 – 30 October 1994) was a Romanian Americanmathematician, statistician and economist. He is best known today for his path-breaking 1971 magnum opusThe Entropy Law and the Economic Process, where he argued that all natural resources are irreversibly degraded when put to use in economic activity. A progenitor and a paradigm founder in economics, Georgescu-Roegen’s work was seminal in establishing ecological economics as an independent academic subdiscipline in economics.

What is Entropy? Same as Diffusion? Seems similar.


“All activities in nature will drive things towards entropy = disorder, so things naturally get disordered.”

“The only way to prevent things from getting disordered – is to apply some energy to them – your body for instance is very ordered and the only way it stays ordered is that you spend a ton of energy holding it together in an ordered fashion – the day that you die – you no longer are expending any energy that hols your body together and your body will fall apart.”

Krasser SCheiß.


Abstract: If there is any takeaway from 1971’s The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, it’s this: beneath every intersection of the s
upply and demand curve, there’s a slow, but steady, process of environmental degradation. Try as you will to recycle waste materials,
the book argues—this process cannot be reversed. A formulation of economics backed with this insight was the life vision of
Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, whose work on environmental economics has recently received a new round of academic scrutiny. But
one might ask, why wasn’t Georgescu well received the first time around, during his time? This paper explores that topic.

See’s History where it acts as a central bank for central banks:…”


History – overview

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was established in 1930 in Basel, Switzerland.

It is an international organisation, created pursuant to an international treaty (The Hague Agreements of 1930). Its shareholding members are central banks and monetary authorities.

The mission of the BIS is to serve central banks in their pursuit of monetary and financial stability, to foster international cooperation in those areas and to act as a bank for central banks.

The following pages will tell you more about the history of the BIS:

The following provide more detail about the BIS’s role and evolution:

  • Toniolo, G with the assistance of P Clement (2005): Central bank cooperation at the Bank for International Settlements, 1930-1973, Cambridge-New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Borio, C, G Toniolo and P Clement (eds) (2008): Past and future of central bank cooperation, Cambridge-New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lefort, D (ed) (2009): “Bank for International Settlements (BIS), Basel, Switzerland”, in International Encyclopaedia of Laws, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International.
  • James, H (2012): Making the European Monetary Union: the role of the Committee of Central Bank Governors and the origins of the European Central Bank, Cambridge-London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

See also this is the biz, the booklet produced for the BIS’s 75th anniversary exhibition.

Ecological Economics Editorial Board


R.B. Howarth

Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA

Book Review Editor

B. Davidsdottir

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland


University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

K.-H. Erb

Universität Klagenfurt, Vienna, Austria

J.I Hukkinen

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

R.P. Muradian

Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

L.J. Pearson

University of Canberra, Bruce, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

P.E Perkins

York University, Toronto, Canada

I. Ring

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany

D. Rothman

University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA

Managing Editor

A.C. Aitken

Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Associate Editors

P. Antunes

Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Lisbon), Lisbon, Portugal

S. Lele

Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bangalore, India

D. Stern

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

Founding Editor

R. Costanza

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

Editorial Board
R. Ayres

R. Ayres

Fontainebleau, France

D.W. Bromley

Madison, Wisconsin, USA

K. Chopra

Delhi, India

M.S. Common

Glasgow, UK

R.M. Cowling

Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Z. Dajian

Shanghai, China

V.H. Dale

Oakridge, Tennessee, USA

H.E. Daly

C. Folke

Stockholm, Sweden

J.M. Gowdy

Troy, New York, USA

T..E. Graedel

T..E. Graedel

New Haven, Connecticut, USA

H. Haberl

Vienna, Austria

B. Haddad

Santa Cruz, California, USA

C.A. Hall

B.M. Hannon

R.M. Hassan

Pretoria, South Africa

N. Khanna

Binghampton, New York, USA

P. Kumar

Liverpool, UK

J. Martinez-Alier

Bellaterra Barcelona, Spain

M. Max-Neef

Santiago, Chile

P.H. May

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

K. Mayumi

Tokushima City, Japan

R.P. Muradian

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

E. Neumayer

London, UK

P. Nijkamp

Amsterdam, Netherlands

R.B. Norgaard

Berkeley, California, USA

B.G. Norton

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

J. Paavola

Leeds, England, UK

C. Perrings

Tempe, USA

S. Polasky

St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

W. Proctor

Canberra, Australia

W.E. Rees

Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

I. Røpke

Lyngby, Denmark

F. Schläpfer

Zurich, Switzerland

P. Söderbaum

C. Spash

Vienna, Austria

S. Stagl

Vienna, Austria

C.A. Tisdell

Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

R.K. Turner

Norwich, England, UK

K. Urama

Nairobi, Kenya

J.C.J.M. van den Bergh

J.C.J.M. van den Bergh

Cerdanyola des Valles (Barcelona), Spain

A. Vatn

Ås, Norway

P. Victor

North York, Ontario, Canada

Tempe, Arizona, USA

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VIAF: The Virtual International Authority File

The VIAF® (Virtual International Authority File) combines multiple name authority files into a single OCLC-hosted name authority service. The goal of the service is to lower the cost and increase the utility of library authority files by matching and linking widely-used authority files and making that information available on the Web.

The Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC) is “a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world’s information and reducing information costs”.[2] It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world.


Please also watch the two speakers before him to fully understand what he is talking about:

They had implemented at least half of the Bretton-Woods money-reform proposals.

The Bretton Woods system after the 2008 crisis

In the wake of the Global financial crisis of 2008, policymakers and others have called for a new international monetary system that some of them also dub Bretton Woods II. On the other side, this crisis has revived the debate about Bretton Woods II.[Notes 5]

On 26 September 2008, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said, “we must rethink the financial system from scratch, as at Bretton Woods.”[44]

On 24–25 September 2009 US President Obama hosted the G20 in Pittsburgh. A realignment of currency exchange rates was proposed. This meeting’s policy outcome could be known as the Pittsburgh Agreement of 2009, where deficit nations may devalue their currencies and surplus nations may revalue theirs upward.

In March 2010, Prime Minister Papandreou of Greece wrote an op-ed in the International Herald Tribune, in which he said, “Democratic governments worldwide must establish a new global financial architecture, as bold in its own way as Bretton Woods, as bold as the creation of the European Community and European Monetary Union. And we need it fast.” In interviews coinciding with his meeting with President Obama, he indicated that Obama would raise the issue of new regulations for the international financial markets at the next G20 meetings in June and November 2010.

Over the course of the crisis, the IMF progressively relaxed its stance on “free-market” principles such as its guidance against using capital controls. In 2011, the IMF’s managing director Dominique Strauss-Kahn stated that boosting employment and equity “must be placed at the heart” of the IMF’s policy agenda.[45] The World Bank indicated a switch towards greater emphases on job creation.[46][47]

However, Deutsche Bank’s Sanjeev Sanyal has argued that the insistence on global balance is fundamentally flawed and that sustained economic growth has always relied on symbiotic imbalances. This means that the world will eventually have to accept a return to new period of imbalance that he calls Bretton Woods III.[42]